Glossary and abbreviations
The 5 Rs rule: “Refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle, rot”, is from the book “Zero waste home” by Béa Johnson, and it makes it possible to structure a process for reducing waste, including plastics.
Acidification (ADEME definition, for life cycle assessments)
This phenomenon results from emissions into the atmosphere of nitrogen oxide, sulphur oxide and ammonia & hydrochloric acid. These components become acids in the presence of humidity, and the resulting acids – in the form of rain, for example – can damage ecosystems. The main man-made sources of acidification are activities involving combustion, including transport. Ammonia, meanwhile, derives mainly from agriculture.
Climate change (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
There is scientific consensus with regard to recognition of a direct link between growth of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities and recent climate changes undergone by Earth. So this translates into an increase in exceptional climate events (eg. : flooding, storms, heat waves, drought), with these changes affecting the global ecosystem of our planet. A wide range of human activities emit greenhouse gases: Industrial activities, transport, buildings, agriculture and livestock farming, waste management, deforestation and some soil management practices etc.
Water consumption (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
Different resources (eg. : rivers, lakes, underground reservoirs) can be mobilised to meet water needs for human activities. These removals amount to excluding water from natural environments while water availability (and therefore its rarity) may vary depending on the region of the world or to the times of year. Depending on the instance, they may therefore contribute towards the phenomenon of water deficit.
Data from evidence left by customers on socio-digital devices available : website visits, number of clicks of QR code, reviews left on booking websites etc.
Primary, secondary and tertiary packaging (ADEME definitions)
Primary packaging means packaging in direct contact with the product. The purpose of the packaging is to contain, preserve and protect the finished product. It’s the first layer that wraps the finished product. It is designed in such a way as to facilitate product handling by consumers. It also serves to make the product more attractive and enables information about the product to be communicated to consumers. The grouping packaging [or secondary packaging] facilitates the handling of more than one product by grouping them into a single packet. It can be separate from the goods it contains or protects, without modifying its preservational properties. Transport packages [or tertiary packaging], enables large quantities of products to be transported from point A (eg. : factory) to point B (eg. : sales outlet). They therefore facilitate handling, storage and transport of goods, as well as avoiding damage.
Eutrophication of water (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
Eutrophication of water is caused by excess nutrients leading to proliferation of algae and eventually to suffocation of the environment. Eutrophication of freshwater is mainly caused by components containing phosphates, that of saltwater to components containing nitrogen. Generally speaking, farming activities and industrial & domestic activities contribute to these outflows of nutrients into the environment.
Land-based eutrophication (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
Land-based eutrophication means excessive enrichment of the environment, especially with nitrogen, leading to an imbalance and impoverishment of the ecosystem.
Formation of photochemical ozone (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
Photochemical ozone is formed in the lower atmosphere from, among other things, volatile organic components and nitrogen oxides, due to the effects of solar radiation. Ozone is a very powerful oxidant, known for having effects on health, as it is able easily to penetrate the respiratory pathways.
The ”Nudge approach” was theorised by Thaler and Sunstein in 2008 and involves changing people’s behaviour in a foreseeable way without prohibiting any option. It involves using levers for so- called gentle prompting so as to encourage people to take the best decision for themselves and for society.
Fine particles (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
This phenomenon involves primary fine particles, produced directly be certain human activities (eg. : combustion activities, soil tillage), as well as secondary fine particles formed using precursors (eg. : nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, ammonia). The smaller the particles (nanoparticles, microparticles of a few microns), the more able they are to penetrate the lungs deeply and thus have repercussions that are harmful to our health.
Polymer (technical definition)
Polymers are synthetic macromolecules obtained by polymerisation or polycondensation of small molecules called monomers. The reaction of polymerisation gives rise to carbon chains whose structure (linear, branched and cross-linked), length (n number of carbon atoms brought together from the simplified chemical formula CH3-(CH2)n-CH3) and assembly form topologies that determine their physical and chemical properties.
SUPs (Single-Use Plastic)
Plastic used just once before being discarded, which is not intended to be reused. This can, for example, include packaging, containers (drinking cups), utensils (plastic covers etc.)
Ionising radiation (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
Ionising radiation is a form of energy freed by atoms, with this energy being able to disrupt or destroy cellular functions of living beings or change the genetic code of cells.
Process for treating products that have reached the end of life (waste), that enable reintroduction of some of their materials into the production of new goods. For further information about the different possible definitions and issues associated, please see the technical specifications produced within the context of the BeMed Business Club.
Describes a material derived from recycling other products.
Property of certain materials that can then be used for recycling.
Concerns any operation through which a product that is not waste is used again, for a use that’s identical to the one for which it was designed. For further information, please refer to the technical specifications produced within the context of the BeMed Business Club.
Concerns any operation by which a product that has become waste is used again, after one or more operations involving cleaning, checking or repair.
Transfer of impact
Transfers of impact occur if an improvement with regard to an environmental factor at a stage of the lifecycle involves negative effects on another stage of the lifecycle or on another environmental factor.
Use of fossil resources (ADEME definition for life cycle assessments)
Our planet contains a limited quantity of minerals enabling the production of metals (eg. : copper, bauxite, lead), of mineral resources (eg. : sand, potassium) and fossil energy resources (eg. : carbon, natural gas, oil, uranium). These resources are more or less rare due to existing reserves and rates of extraction. Their extraction leads to lower availability for future generations.